Saturday, March 7, 2020

Micro level Opinion The Psychology of Opinion Holding

Micro level Opinion The Psychology of Opinion Holding Liberal and conservative elites are distinctively different. What are the political implications of these differences? When respondents during opinion polling are requested to identify themselves along the liberal-conservative dimension, their answers correspond to their stance on policy matters.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Micro level Opinion: The Psychology of Opinion Holding specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The conservatives are interested in maintaining the existing state of affairs and institutions, they have the desire to maintain status quo. Liberal elites are considered to have flexible moral standards and they are not religious in thought. The opinion of the liberals is reflected in their response regarding contemporary issues like abortion and the rights of gay people. Conservatism places great importance and attach significance to the past, they like tradition and resist change, to them change is not w elcome. Conservatism is a product of Roosevelt’s new deal (Erikson Tedin, 2011). The main aspects that differentiate liberal and conservative elites are: political philosophies, change, and their traditional connotation. Concerning political philosophy, the conservatives prefer traditional and relatively slow changes. This is reflected in their opinions on topics like religion, culture and nationalities which are well defined. The liberals consider individual liberty the fundamental principle; also liberals emphasize equality and opportunity. Liberals value principles like the freedom of expression and the limitation of government role and transparency and accountability are dear to them. Regarding change, conservatives acknowledge change but they believe change is gradual. Liberals on the other hand believe in radical change, they also have the common belief that traditions must be adjusted for the good interest of humanity. In the American political scene, the republicans are considered to be generally conservative in their ideologies whereas democrats are considered to be liberal. In America, the conservatives are associated with their anti-abortion, anti-gay marriage and legalizing of gun possession stances. Their stand on national issues is motivated by empirical understanding as opposed to rationality. Liberalism advocates for equality among all men and they value rationality. Liberalists support a level playing field in all matters ranging from wealth to race to religion. It is argued that conservatism emanated due to the excesses of liberalism.Advertising Looking for essay on political culture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rules and mechanisms that citizens employ to convert information into political opinions Party Differences: Democratic and republican political parties have different ideologies. The supporters of these political parties have different perspective on hot t opics that are subject of public debate. During presidential campaigns presidential candidates of these political parties’ express their stand on public issues. Among the hot topics that elicit debate in America are matters of abortion, foreign policy and creation of employment. The position of these candidates is considered as the opinion of the supporters. Political opinion is a product of partisanship; Americans prefer association with political party and its policies without necessarily having substantial information regarding the political party. Party association gives an individual a sense of political identity. Liberal and conservative dimension: This is used by majority of the population to derive their political opinion. This is due to the fact that being either a conservative or a liberal makes an individual to take a predetermined position on particular political debate. The political situation in the US have always developed a predetermined position for the conse rvative and liberals and any individual who traces his opinion along one of the dimensions will have no choice but to respect the stand of their respective ideological dimension. Personal Ideologies and Individual Perspective: There is a group of people who are independent minded and as such they don’t subscribe to the opinions of other people, neither do they follow their party lines or is their opinion dictated by their ideologies as being either conservative or liberal. They arrive at their opinion based on their personal way of looking at things. This is often demonstrated on the debate concerning social issues like abortion and gay rights (Erikson Tedin, 2011). Macro level Opinion: The Flow of Political Sentiment Question One: Social welfare concerns the distribution of wealth and the ability of the government to assist the under-privileged persons in the society. Civil rights on the other hand pertain to the demand for equality of all people before the law. Foreign po licy refers to views of the citizens concerning the role of the United States in the international matters. Cultural issues refer to the dissimilarities and variations in the lifestyle or moral values afflicting the society like abortion, religion and capital punishment. On social welfare, Americans have expressed hostility towards matters regarding welfare. Race forms part of people’s opinion when social welfare is discussed. The white’s opinion on this matter is that the black population is lazy and majorly populates the welfare roles. The white segment of the population believes that the black population is the beneficiaries of welfare and that the black despite this fact are still opposed to welfare. Majority of the American citizens are not willing to pay more taxes to uplift their welfare and to receive better public service. This response is often captured in survey questions concerning taxing and spending. Concerning civil rights, there has been changing trends . The whites’ populations have liberal perception regarding the ideals of the civil rights but they demonstrate limited efforts in implementing the ideals. Pertaining to the fair employment practices, it has always been on the rise and by 1992 approximately 96 percent of the Americans had endorsed it. The failure by the whites to endorse civil rights ideals was evident in 1944 and 1958 when in 1944 a small 45 percent agreed that the Negroes should have equal chance as the whites to secure employment and in 1958 only 38 percent of the whites were willing to vote for a black presidential candidate. In America, racial discrimination is a universal phenomenon. The government has done little to alleviate this matter. The implementation of the ideals concerning civil rights is conservative in form.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Micro level Opinion: The Psychology of Opinion Holding specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was evident by the desire of the whites to instill the belief that they have every right to keep the blacks out of their neighborhood which was supported by 87 percent of the white respondents. On of the contemporary civil rights matters is affirmative action. Racial messages are heavily latent among the whites. On foreign policy, majority of the American people agree that US should avoid any foreign war. There is a group calling itself internationalist who advocates for the American involvement in world affairs. Their opinion was brought to fore when America was involved in the Second World War. There is also another segment that is opposed to the internationalist perspective, this group is referred to as isolationist and they advocate against the involvement of the Americans in international affairs. The appreciation of foreign policy as an important instrument of promoting America’s influence abroad is popular among majority of Americans as evidenced by their suppor t for the United Nations. There has been a shifting and often varying public opinion regarding defense spending. Majority of the Americans believe that the defense spending by the government is small and it is underfunded. Concerning America’s foreign intervention and war, Americans have always paid attention and raised their voices when their state gets involved in a war. There is always a widespread support when the country expresses desire to go to war but public opinion diminishes when the war is protracted. On social issues, there has been widespread and varying support by the public. This has been evidenced in such issues as debate on marijuana, abortion, gay rights and pornography. Support for gay rights has been gaining public support (Erikson Tedin, 2011). Public opinion and foreign policy has vacillated between internationalism and isolationism There has been debate over the position of America in the international arena. This was sparked by the act of Roosevelt to furnish the Great Britain with military aid.Advertising Looking for essay on political culture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Isolationists believe that the United States should adhere to its traditional policy of non-alignment or non-involvement in European matters just as it had been during the period of the World War 1. Internationalists believe that the United States should assert its role as a dominant actor in international affairs. This debate between the internationalists and isolationists has been sparked by various events in the international debate which range from the world wars, the UN, independence of Germany where each side of the debate has adopted extreme approach. America’s opposition towards European wars was considered an isolationist tactic since it demonstrated that America wished to withdraw its involvement in the international politics especially of the western hemisphere. The isolationist stance of the Unites States of America was demonstrated when the senate rejected the treaty of Versailles that sought to establish the League of Nations. The setting of high tariffs and dut ies on all foreign goods was aimed at curtailing the fact that its high wage scale needed protection from cheap foreign labor (Erikson Tedin, 2011). The idea that pursuing isolationist alone could jeopardize the interest of USA abroad especially economic interest led to the adoption of internationalist approach. Internationalist approach began with the Warren Harding’s policy on disarmament and foreign policy which was considered necessary. Consequently, internationalist approach was demonstrated by the signing of the four –power pact and the nine-power pact which permitted status quo in the Western pacific and China. Majority of the American population support America’s participation and intervention in foreign affairs, they are against the idea that USA should adopt an isolationist stance. Despite this strong public opinion in favor of USA involvement in foreign matters, majority of them express their dissatisfaction with particular aspects of USA role in int ernational affairs since they consider it destabilizing. Most of the Americans are for the establishment of US military bases in the soil of traditional American allies. Also regarding foreign policy, majority of the Americans are against the hegemonic role of the US and they have modest concerns for the preservation of the role of the US as the main superpower. Concerning the United Nations, a significant population of the United States believes that UN plays a very important role in the globe and they strongly support US participation in the United Nations (Erikson Tedin, 2011). The factors influencing opinion on America’s foreign policy are: the bureaucracy, public opinion, the media, interest groups and political parties. These are the domestic factors. International factors include power, norms and international l institutions. Bureaucrats are the government officials who are charged with the responsibility of formulating government policy and they can also advocate for an amendment of policies, this is an indication that the bureaucracy has the chance to significantly change the foreign policy of America. Public opinion: This is a critical source of opinion on foreign policy. Government officers especially the elected derive their mandate form the voters. Public opinion puts pressure on the government if it is dissatisfied with a particular policy and they can express it through demonstrations or petitioning the government. Public opinion is also significant in lending support to the interest groups and other actors in the society when it seeks to influence government opinion. The media: The media is often considered the link between the public and the government. The media is a fundamental instrument for building support on foreign policy. Media is also important in articulating foreign policy matters and can also set policy agenda. Interest groups: The influence of interest groups has gained momentum in the recent years. They pay attention to t opical issues that are hot and capture the attention of the voters. Since they are in touch with the voters, their affinity to influence voters’ opinion on foreign policies is very high. Political parties: These are particularly the political parties that are represented in parliament, both the one forming the government and the one in opposition. A partisan realignment occurred during the 1930s.What is the composition of today’s electorate? Party identification in USA refers to a situation whereby an individual identifies with a political party of his/her choice and it is determined by analyzing an individual’s support for a particular the opinion and policies of a political party. In the US, individuals identify with one of the two main political parties: the republican and the democratic. In the US, party identification is considered an important aspect of political identity. Realignment is understood as the change in the voting patterns behavior, it is the s witching of voter preference from one party to another. The history of American politics is characterized by strong party system and political realignments on special circumstance. These two factors define the partisan party politics of US. In the period of New Deal, the realignment resulted in the Democratic Party replacing the dominance of the Republican Party in the American politics. This was evident when the democrats won seven presidential elections out of nine elections (Erikson Tedin, 2011). The realignment concerned the new deal on 1930s and it involved a transformation of the new deal from predominantly republican affair to a democrat issue. This transformation was as a result of the great depression in eras of both republican president and a democratic president. Elections that were held during the great depression period was characterized by shift in the American voting patterns since it created a permanent realignment which led to overwhelming vote for Franklin Delano Roosevelt , a democratic candidate. All voters irrespective of race, religion, party affiliation and social status and a coalition of labor unions approved the economic policy of New Deal by Roosevelt and voting him to power for three terms. The realignments during the 1930 brought a new dimension in the party system and party politics of the USA. This realignment was brought about by the Great Depression and it catalyzed the transformation of the democrats from a minority to a majority political party. The realignment was dubbed the New Deal Democratic coalition and it encompassed support from all the working class or labor unions and other minority groups to the already existing democratic followers There were several reasons as to why there were political realignments in the era of New deal. This was due to the shifts in the distribution of the popular vote which was a response to the crisis that was witnessed during the 1930s which had attracted widespread tension and dissatisfa ction. It had little to do with dissatisfaction of the party in government by the electorate. The main purpose was to give any party whether opposing or in government an effective capacity and an opportunity to implementing policies that were considered to be perfect response to crisis. The end result of the realignments was to be considered a response to crisis and also as a reflection of the dissatisfaction that one party was rejected by the voters, it consequently involved the endorsement and an affirmation of the advantaged political party following the elections. Therefore, combination of factors prompted the political realignments: they included shifting in voting patterns, the case of need for policy action and the desire by the people to approve the New Deal as stop gap policy actions. Political and party realignments do not necessary imply that there is a complete and radical shift with the existing tradition of party loyalties but it is only taken to be an emergency or a s top gap measure. On the composition of the American electorate, the low income and the minority segment of the population are isolated from the voting population. This is despite their substantial population and as such, the proportion of the population who are registered to vote and those who have not been registered is skewed in form since those voting are the whites, the wealthy and the educated. American electorate is made up of the whites, the blacks, the Hispanic and the Asian (Erikson Tedin, 2011). Reference Erikson, R. S Tedin, K. L. (2011). American Public Opinion (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Longman.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Should Canada share its freshwater with people in the developing world Research Paper

Should Canada share its freshwater with people in the developing world who do not have access to safe and clean freshwater - Research Paper Example It is an essential input for industries, hydropower generation, agricultural activities, subsistence or commercial agriculture and other significant purposes. These activities are the core livelihood of human well-being because they contribute to employment and national economic activities. However, access to safe and clean freshwater has become a global health issue and many nations, especially the developing economies, have been profoundly impacted by water scarcity. The WHO reveals that more than 3,900 children die annually because of waterborne infections (Miller & Spoolman, 2012). The developing nations are being impacted heavily by water related issues, and many families lack access to safe and clean freshwater. Almost half of the population in the developing nations lacks access to safe and clean freshwater because of natural phenomena such as climatic changes due to globalization, rainfall patterns and human factors including high population growth and pollution, thus threate ning sustainable water resources. Reasons Why Canada Should Share Its Freshwater With People in the Developing World The increased demand for freshwater, increased population growth, overexploitation of natural resources and climatic changes are worsening the state of freshwater resources, hence the need for Canadians to share their freshwater with people in the developing nations. First, Canada should share freshwater with the developing nations because there is an increased demand for water sources in the developing world. This results from the high population growth rate in developing nations and overdependence on agricultural activities. Miller (2007) asserts that supplying freshwater for irrigation and drinking is one way of sustaining the earth. This is because many people in the developing nations depend heavily on agricultural activities as their backbone for economic growth. However, many of them are unable to achieve sustainability because of increased poverty levels, whic h is linked with water scarcity. Many of them undergo severe famine because of prolonged drought and water related diseases. Therefore, distribution of safe and clean water will reduce over-competition on scarce water resources and exploitation of water resources, hence achievement of sustainable development. Moreover, the increased population growth rate contributes to an increased demand for water; thus, there is the need for Canadian government to supply adequate fresh water to the developing world. The world report on population reveals that many developing nations have the highest population rate and this contributes to associated problems such as competition for the available scarce resources, encroaching on the water resources areas such as wetlands and forested areas (Bundschuh & Hoinkis, 2012). Wetlands and forests play significant functions in maintaining natural resources, but overpopulation, pollution and competition for natural resources threaten the sustainability of s uch natural resources. Therefore, it is the role of Canadian government to work with other international policy makers to contribute to the global agenda of managing water resources and distributing quality water (Canada, 2005). They will provide access to technology and offer effective training programs in the key development areas of water resource management. This will benefit the developing nations, thus enabling them to access quality water and achieving

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

International Business and World Markets Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

International Business and World Markets - Essay Example In their pursuit of international expansion, companies must overcome barriers such as language differences, currency differences, cultural differences, legal and administrative differences, and skill levels differences. International business is the process of integration and interaction among people and advancing of connectivity and interdependence of businesses and markets. Many small and growing companies have unearthed lucrative new markets abroad and are receptive to franchising, joint ventures or technology transfer, and licensing (Czinkota 2008, p.229). Globalization Drivers Several factors (internal and external) can be outlined as driving the development of a global marketplace. The factors can be outlined as market, environmental, cost, and competitive factors. Parallels within demand conditions across a number of countries facilitate the establishment of single global strategies. For instance, markets such as Europe, America, and the Far East manifest consumer groups that share matching educational backgrounds, lifestyles, income levels, aspiration, and utilization of leisure time. Cost Factors The avoidance of cost inefficiencies and duplication of efforts shape two of the most prominent globalization drivers. In most cases, a single-country population are merely not sufficient for a business to attain meaningful economies of scale Environmental Factors There are diverse factors that affect firms operating on the international scene. These factors can be delineated as incorporating political, economic, technological, and sociocultural factors. The selection of international market involves the interplay of both organizational and environmental factors. Environmental factors may entail opportunistic approaches, local market complexities, and domestic competitive pressures (Czinkota 2008, p.230). Environmental factors such as technological advances allow businesses to leapfrog over phases of economic development. Competitive Factors Global strategies are frequently necessary to safeguard competitors from attaining an undue advantage in both domestic and overseas market. In the event that a competitor manufactures on a global scale and thus attains global economies of scale, this may undercut prices in the home market. Discussion The principal factors that prompt both small and medium-sized forms to make their moves into overseas markets can be categorized as proactive motivations, or factors that explain why companies go global and reactive motivations that elaborate on why the firms have to do so. Expansion within a â€Å"demand-driven† paradigm demands a more intricate, active, and ongoing overseas commitment compared to â€Å"supply-driven† initiatives that highlight the optimization of supply chains (Anne 2007, p.184). The eclectic theory was an intellectual response to the rising role of international production and the multinational corporation within the world economy. There are three factors that outline th e international activities of multinational enterprises: ownership advantages, location advantages, and internalization advantages (Rugman 2010, p.1). Multinationals usually develop competitive advantages at home and then transfer the advantages to certain countries via foreign direct investments, which allow the multinational enterprises to internalize the advantages (Rugman 2010, p.2).  

Monday, January 27, 2020

Distinguish Between Colonialism And Neocolonialism Cultural Studies Essay

Distinguish Between Colonialism And Neocolonialism Cultural Studies Essay The term colony comes from the Latin word colonus, meaning farmer. This root reminds us that the practice of colonialism usually involved the transfer of population to a new territory, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political allegiance to their country of origin. Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another. One of the difficulties in defining colonialism is that it is not easy to distinguish it from neocolonialism. Frequently the two concepts are treated as synonyms. Like colonialism, neocolonialism also involves political and economic control over a dependent territory. The etymology of the two terms, however, provides some clues about how they differ. According to Longman Contemporary English Dictionary colonialism is when a powerful country rules a weaker one and establishes its own trade and society there. ORIGIN OF COLONIALISM Before the abolition of the slave trade by Denmark in 1802 and Britain in 1807. The entire West African Coast witnessed trade in slaves which were need for the plantations of the then Industrialized new world. The nations involved were France, Britain, Denmark, Portugal and Germany. About forty years later the trade changed to that of colonialism conquest and occupation by Europeans. The Berlin West African Conference of 1884 1885 gave international recognition to a situation that was already in existence. 1945 1960 witnessed a reversal of the process of colonization decolonization while 1960 till date is witnessing a reincarnation and a resurrection of colonialism neocolonialism. Below shows a chronology of dates and the sequence of events from colonialism to neocolonialism and the present day ongoing process of neocolonialism. 1880 1885 Proto-Colonial period 1885 1945 Colonial Era Subdivision 1884 1885 Berlin Conference (the scramble for Africa) 1885 1900 Period of Conquest and occupation 1900 1919 Period of Penetration 1919 1939 Period of Colonial Rule 1939 1945 Decline of colonial rule 1945 1960 Period of decolonization 1960 Till date Period of Neocolonialism. MEANING OF NEOCOLONIALISM The term neocolonialism was first coined by Kwame Nkrumah, the first post-independence president of Ghana, and has been discussed by a number of twentieth century scholars and philosophers, including Jean-Paul Sartre and Noam Chomsky Neocolonialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural forces to control a country (usually former European colonies in Africa or Asia) in lieu of direct military or political control. Such control can be economic, cultural, or linguistic, by promoting ones own culture, language or media in the colony, corporations embedded in that culture can then make greater headway in opening the markets in those countries. Thus, neocolonialism would be the result of business interests leading to deleterious cultural effects. Neocolonialism as defined by Longmans contemporary English Dictionary is when a powerful country uses its economic and political influence to control another country. DEFERENCE BETWEEN COLONIALISM AND NEOCOLONIALISM Though colonialism and neocolonialism are two sides of a coin. There are a number of differences that distinguishes the two. COLONIALISM NEOCOLONIALISM It is not modern (between 1880 1960s It involves physical or territorial occupation by the colonizers It has ended It is the early state of capitalism or imperialism It varies according to country e.g. Indirect Rule, (British) and policy of assimilation association by the French. It was led by France and Britain. It is a modern phenomenon It is not involve direct or physical presence of the colonizer any more It is ongoing i.e it is a continuous process It is the highest stage of Imperialism Neo-colonialism uses one methodology agents of Globalization It is now led by USA Probably nothing has become as controversial a subject as the impact of Colonialism on Africa among scholars of history and political science. Scholars such as Gann, Duignan, Perham and PC Lloyd see colonialism and neocolonialism as a blessing rather than a curse while other scholars such as Kwame Nkrumah, Che Guevara, Walter Rodney, MHY Kaniki A.E. Afigbo, A. Adu, Boahen, Ali Mazrai etc. sees it as a curse rather than a blessing. To buttress this further Che Guevaras says. As long as imperialism exists it will by definition exert its domination over other countries. Today that domination is called neocolonialism. Che Guevara, Marxist revolutionary 1965 In view of this, the impact of Neo-colonialism therefore is not a lesser task to assess particularly from social, economic and political perspectives in Nigeria. To be frank, though there were positive effects but every greater were the negative ones. Below is my assessment of the impact of neocolonialism on the social, economic and political life of Nigeria. (A) AN ASSESSMENT SOCIAL-CULTURAL IMPACT OF NEO-COLONIALISM IN NIGERIA (1) Provision of a lingua franca. This is a positive impact of Neo-colonialism in Nigeria. The provision of a lingua franca (official language) for Nigeria can now be seen as a blessing due to the marriage of inconvenience which brought the numerous linguistic groups that constitutes the country to easily adopt a neutral language. Neo-colonialism through globalization has further consolidated the use of English language as the business and official language not only Nigeria but across the Anglophone countries. (2) Cultural Dominance According to Ali-Mazrui: African are not necessarily the most brutalized of peoples, but they are almost certainly the most humiliated. Using the agents of a globalization e.g. the Mass Media, Internet Western Movies etc. Nigerian culture like other African countries is evidently being subjugated and dominated by the western culture. Many Nigerians today seem to have imbibed the European way of life at the expense of our rich African culture (colonial mentality). This is gradually leading to a loss of cultural identity. (3) Western Education This is an indispensable effect that Neo-colonialism has also used as a tool for Nigerian continuous reliance on the west for inadequate, lopsided and wrongly oriented education which was bequeathed by colonialism and consolidated by Neo-colonialism. This is evident from the fact that our acquisition of western education has helped in a neglect of technological and industrial education rather than that of a technological advancement. (4) Environment Degradation Oil spillages due to the exploitation of oil by some multinational companies such as Shell, Exxon Mobil etc. has to a large extent polluted Nigerias water and land resources particularly in the oil producing areas of the Niger Delta. Consequently this has affected the eco-system, the habitat and the cultural occupation of the people of that area. (B) AN ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC IMPACT OF NEO-COLONIALISM IN NIGERIA Positively Nigeria as a country has benefiting economically from Neo-colonialism. However the negative economic impacts seem to outweigh the positive impacts. One out of the negative economic impacts includes: (1) Economic Dependency International Organizations accused of participating in neo-colonialism are the World Bank, World Trade Organizations, the Group of Eight the Paris Club, the World economic forum, IMF etc. have been used by the first world countries to subject Nigeria into some structural adjustments which will increase rather than alleviate poverty . These Organizations are neocolonial agents used to ensure a perpetual economic failure and dependence of Nigeria as evident in the high rate of underdevelopment, poverty, debt burden etc. which has characterized our economy. (2) Economic Subjugation by Multi-national Corporations Critics of neocolonialism has also argued that investment by multinational corporations enriches few in under-developed countries and causes humanitarian, environmental and ecological devastation to the population which inhabits the colonies. These corporations such as Shell, Exxon Mobil etc. are responsible for a continuous flow of natural resources (oil) which unduly benefits the neo-colonial states. (3) Economic Brain Drain Today modern slavery exists through visa lotteries used to siphon not only Nigerias but ultimately the human resources of the developing countries. This is an economic brain drain strategy to subject the third world into a continuous technological hostage. (C) AN ASSESSMENT OF THE POLITICAL IMPACTS OF NEO-COLONIALISM IN NIGERIA (1) Consolidation of Democracy in Nigeria Though Nigerias political history has been characterized by the Military versus the Civilians. Recently democracy seems to have been fully entrenched in Nigeria through neo-colonial agent, such as the U.N. and other similar organizations. (2) Political Dependency Nigerias membership of the United Nations and the Commonwealth which sit joined immediately after Independence provided reasons why we have always been politically dependent on neo-colonial states like the USA and Britain. Consequently, Nigeria membership Pan-African Movement like, NEPAD, the Non-Aligned Movements, the African Union, the ECOWAS have not liberated as from this unending political grip of dependency. (3) Political Instability and Regime Change Apparently, government either Military or Civilian which poses no threat to the neo-colonial states in Nigeria seem to last longer than the unfriendly ones. In my opinion, no other reason can be tendered as why the Murtala Seven Months Regime (July 1975 February 1976) and the Buhari regime (December 1983 August 1985) were very short lived. Nigerian leaders who refuse to be stooges or puppets of the neo-colonial powers are usually forcefully removed. (4) Loss of Independence and Sovereignty Neo-colonialism, as a continuation of colonialism have of course eroded the independence or sovereignty which Nigeria like many third world countries claimed to have gotten. (5) New Colonialism Finally, neo-colonialism is the tool which has helped the neo-colonial states to continue the colonial process which started around 1880 and obstructed by decolonization or Independence of Nigeria in 1960 In conclusion, whatever colonialism and neo-colonialism did or is doing for Africans in Africa or Nigeria, given its opportunities, it resources and the power and influence it is wielding till date it could and should have done far more than it has done. It is precisely because the neo-colonial states not only did not see the development of Africans as their first priority but did not see it as a priority at all that they stand criticized. The continuous existence of the tools of neo-colonialism therefore poses an existential threat to the development of Nigeria and Africa.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Factors That Influence Human Development Essay

In our day and time, socioeconomic status, cultural context, and ethnicity play a huge role in human development. Human development begins while in the womb and at birth and continues through life heavily depending on these particular factors. These factors determine how a person communicates, works, looks, and chooses to live their daily lives. People are individuals and therefore, are all different people and will develop in different ways all depending on the influence of these three things in their lives. The first factor that influences human development is a person’s socioeconomic status. This indicates a person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence. As a child, socioeconomic status has a big effect on the way a child is raised and the opportunities available to him/her. Children that come from high socioeconomic status families typically are more successful because they have more resources readily available to their children. They are able to afford high-quality childcare, education, and healthcare. Read more: Explain how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of personal factors essay Their children are also typically more involved in recreational sports and extra-curricular activities broadening their children’s horizons and talents. Children that are raised in low socioeconomic families lack the financial, educational, and social support that would make them feel equal to children from higher social standing families. These feelings of unease and not fitting in can lead to low confidence and low motivation. Children have to live with these feelings and the circumstances they were born into until they become adults and can make their own livings. Anyone is capable of overcoming his or her circumstances! When children grow up, they get to decide how far they want to take their education and what type of career field they want to go into as well as where and how they will choose to fit into modern day society. Cultural context is also a large factor that shapes a person’s development. Culture is defined as the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music, and arts. Culture affects the way we dress, what we eat, what we believe, and even the way we think about life and make decisions. I think that culture is beginning to play a larger role in development as our country begins to grow exponentially with the number or foreign immigrants making this nation their home. Different cultures are beginning to merge together making their heritage and beliefs that much more important in the hearts of their people as they grow and develop into adults. For example, a Muslim or Hindu individual will celebrate certain holidays very differently than a Catholic or Christian individual. A person’s cultural beliefs and traditions have an affect on their everyday lives, and those things will be passed down through generations. One example of a culturally taught idea here in America is the typical â€Å"American Dream† that we, as American children, have been taught through childhood and youth. From an early age, we were taught and told that with hard work, determination, and never giving up on a dream, our opportunities would be endless. Culture is another huge factor on human development. According to the textbook, there is some confusion regarding the differences between race and ethnicity. Ethnicity or an ethnic group is defined as a people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. Race is defined as a group of people who are regarded by themselves or by others as distinct from other groups on the bases of physical appearance. Race can definitely be a misleading concept though. I think ethnicity and culture are very different things, but definitely go hand in hand pertaining to human development. Each human being is their own individual person, therefore, will grow and develop differently. Being a part of an ethnic group can have a very positive influence on a child or an adult by giving them a sense of belonging and identity; it helps them to discover and understand who they are and where they come from. It can also present negative consequences such as creating divisions between different groups of people which have caused discrimination and prejudice which in our history has unfortunately led to conflict and in extreme cases, war. All three of theses areas influence a person’s physical, cognitive, and social development in different ways. Explain why researchers interested in human development study different cultures. Give an example of a research question that would benefit from a multicultural comparison. This question can greatly be connected to the following one. Cultural tendencies are a huge factor in human development, so to get an accurate study regarding development; it would have to be a cross-cultural study. If you were questioning the correlation between height and weight of children from higher socioeconomic families versus children from lower socio economic families testing the theory that a major cause of malnutrition and low growth rate is family income and status, you would have to test your theory in different parts of the world and in different people groups. Things that would need to be considered are different styles of cooking and the way that certain people eat as well as amount of physical activity. For example, children in Africa whose job it is to work in the fields or help their family out doing some form of chores that most likely is outside and involves laborious activity are going to naturally get more physical exercise in their everyday lives that American children who sit in a classroom and then go home to play video games and maybe play an occasional game outside. Children raised in America definitely live a more sedentary lifestyle than most other people groups, and that is something to take into consideration when looking at things such as height and weight that ride on factors such as physical activity and activity level. This is the reason for researchers and psychologists that are interested in studying different cultures to get accurate answers to these questions regarding human development. Since culture, race, and ethnicity play such a huge role in development, it is necessary to study different types of people to make these assumptions. Review information related to Figure 1. 2 (Ecological Model). Explain your own development from a social, physical, and cognitive perspective from this model using at least three of the Five Characteristics of Development (page 11). This model illustrates the social, physical, and cognitive development of a person through these five different characteristics of development. The five systems are the Microsystems, exosystems, macrosystems, mesosystems, and the chronosystem. This model was created by Urie Bronfenbrenner to show how each person is significantly affected by interactions among a number of these overlapping systems. The microsystem seems to be the most critical in my personal opinion; they intimately and immediately shape development. Personally, the examples given in the model are the most important areas or things that mean the most to me as a person, and I would definitely say they are the things that have made me who I am today. My family, friends, and my faith are the most important things in my life and certainly have shaped my life. I was raised in a strong Christian family with two loving parents who support me in everything that I do. My faith is the cornerstone and foundation of who I am, and is my basis for decisions I make and the way I choose in which to live my life and the people I choose to surround myself with. I have an incredible group of friends that keep me grounded and sometimes I feel like they know me better than I know myself. These things that are included in the microsystem of development have certainly been heavyweights as I have developed into the woman I am today. The next system illustrated in this model is called the exosystem, which include external networks such as community, mass media, school/educational settings, and medical institutions that influence the inner circle of the microsystem. Personally, these areas definitely carry weight, especially in such a generation and society that is led by social networking and the media/entertainment industry. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and all of the other social networking sites drive this generation, so I believe this system has a large impact on development. As far as schooling, since I am deciding to go back to school to aim for a master’s degree in nursing, this plays a huge role in my life and development. I spend large amounts of time focusing all of my attention on schoolwork and reading to further my education. The third area I feel like has had a large impact on my personal development and life itself is the macrosystem, which influences all of the other systems and includes cultural values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions. I think the one of these areas that has personally had the most influence on me is the social conditions. Being socially aware and socially open to meeting new people and being able to learn new ways to engage others at the college age level is crucial. When our high school group of friends breaks up and moves away to take on new endeavors of their own, you have to be able to adjust and meet new people, and I feel as if that is an area I have done really well in. I love to meet new people, and I think the reason for that is the social foundation that I already had established from growing up in an environment and around people who made me feel comfortable and established self-confidence and self-worth in me. These are the areas in which I feel like have greatly influenced my personal physical, cognitive, and social development.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Walt Disney: a Cultural Transformation

â€Å"All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them. † Walt Disney believed in this passionately. This is one of the many reasons Walt Disney accomplished so many things in his lifetime. With hard work and a great imagination you can truly do anything just as Walt Disney did. Even today Walt Disney’s company is extremely successful. All of the different things that Walt Disney and his company have done have contributed to the world’s popular culture. Walt Disney was born on December 5th, 1901. His parents were Elias and Flora Disney. Walt had a good childhood although it is said that his father had a bad temper that at times he could not control. Walt started to become interested in acting and drawing at a young age. At school, instead of focusing on his work, he would draw endlessly. Among his classmates he was known as Walt Disney, the artist. In 1917 Walt attended the Chicago Art Institute where he gained more experience. He dropped out of school in an attempt to join the army but was too young. Instead of the army, Walt joined the Red Cross where he drove an ambulance for a year. In 1919, Walt moved back to Chicago and started drawing for a living. After a couple fail attempts he and his brother were able to open Disney Brothers Studios. In 1927, Walt had created Oswald the lucky rabbit. Oswald turned out to be a huge success but Walt was betrayed. Universal pictures bought out Walt’s staff and he lost all rights to the character. Walt was desperate to create another successful character like Oswald. In 1928, Walt and his small circle of associates came up with a mouse character. The new character was named Mickey Mouse. At the time they didn’t know how much this little mouse would impact America. Mickey Mouse hit stardom when Steamboat Willie, the first animated short with sound and movement, was released. That’s when Walt Disney Productions was formed. During the time in which Mickey Mouse was introduced America was in the depths of a depression. The economy was hit badly on Black Tuesday October 29th 1929 when the stock market crashed. Then, tragedy struck again when a long drought destroyed crops and farms. So many people lost everything they had. Mickey Mouse was someone to pick them up in those hard times; a source f wishful thinking. In this time unemployment reached historic levels and the whole country looked for prosperity ahead. Throughout the 1930s the Disney cartoons were a business stimulus. Mickey Mouse merchandising exploded and there were a hundred products not only across the country but around the world. Mickey Mouse products were the only thing getting some companies through the Depression. By 1934 Mickey Mouse merchandise was earning around $600,000 a year. Political historians would likely say that the 1930s were the age of Franklin Roosevelt but cultural historians consider it the age of Mickey Mouse. Walt Disney is famous for saying, â€Å"I only hope that we don't lose sight of one thing – that it was all started by a mouse. † Mickey Mouse is now one most recognized faces of all time and an icon of American culture. There is no doubt that Mickey Mouse and his ears are the face of The Disney Studios but Mickey isn’t the only iconic character that the company has created. Hundreds of characters have been born from Disney Studios, although some are more popular than others, they all have contributed to Disney Studios. Around the same time Mickey Mouse was introduced his â€Å"friends†, as they have been come to be called, were created. Mickey’s friends included Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto. These characters represented friendship and often taught moral lessons like Disney often did. Snow White and Cinderella started the princess phenomenon. These movies lead to other Disney Princesses including The Sleeping Beauty, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Pocahontas and Rapunzel. Girls around the world look up to these female heroes. The one thing that all these Disney characters have in common is that they will forever be embedded in pop culture. In 1937, Walt Disney made history when Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was released. The film was the first full length animated film of its time. Critics had little faith in the productive of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs but were proven wrong when the film earned over 8 million on its first release. The film was such a success that Walt built a studio specifically for the making of animated films. The film became a foundation for future feature length animated films. During the 1940s and 1950s the studio made many animated films including Fantasia, Bambi, Cinderella, Alice n Wonderland, and Peter Pan. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was an artistic and technological breakthrough in the entertainment world. Animated films lead to the production of live-action features and television programs. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs showed that animated films could be just as entertaining as other motion pictures. Walt Disney was known for transforming imagination into reality which was es pecially true when he made Disneyland, the first ever theme park. Disneyland changed the amusement park industry forever when it opened on July 18th 1955. Disneyland was the first start in making theme parks popular. Walt Disney once said, â€Å"Disneyland will never be completed. It will continue to grow as long as there is imagination left in the world. † Although Disneyland was successful, it wasn’t the perfection Walt was looking for. Disneyland in California didn’t meet his vision because of the sleazy restaurants and hotels that were around the park. Fifteen years later Walt decided to build a new theme park in Orlando, Florida that would be a magical experience all around. Walt tried to keep the operation low key by setting up dummy corporations to buy the land. It was a reporter from the Orlando Sentinel newspaper who broke the news that it was Disney who bought the land. Walt never did get to see Disney World completed because of his death on December 15th 1966 of a cardiac arrest. Walt’s brother stayed on the project and Disney World opened to the public on October 1, 1971. Central Florida now has more theme parks than any other place in the world with Walt Disney World resort being the largest recreational resort ever built. The happiest place on earth didn’t just stay in the United States. Besides Disneyland in California and Walt Disney World in Florida there are three other Disney resorts in Tokyo, Paris, and Hong Kong. Many people wonder how such a successful enterprise was created. At first, the Walt Disney Studio wasn’t profitable but it was staying afloat. Even when in debt Walt Disney looked to do more. He made smart moves to fundraise money to start new projects including Disneyland. As early as the 1930s Disney enterprises became global with branch offices in Chicago, Toronto, London, Paris, Copenhagen, Milan, Barcelona, Lisbon, and Sydney. After the death of Walt and his brother, Roy, the company struggled. In 1980s and 1990s the stock grew rapidly which made Disney the largest entertainment empire in the world. Before Walt Disney died he managed to build the first multinational media corporation. Disney now has five business segments including media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, consumer products and interactive media. The Walt Disney Company is now a $60 million dollar company and is the complete entertainment experience. Walt Disney is known for saying â€Å"if your dream it, you can do it. † He and his company are an example of just that. Although Walt Disney died his legacy lives on. The Walt Disney Company continues to create blockbuster films, parks, and television. Disney has made a few hundred movies and more than fifty of them being animated films. There is now a Disney channel on all five continents in several languages. The Walt Disney Company has become part of the world’s culture especially in the United States. He has created some of the most iconic characters of all time including the timeless Mickey Mouse. Disney characters have touched the hearts of people around the world. When the first full length animated movie was made it changed the course of film making forever. Disneyland and Disney World were the start of theme parks as we know them today. The achievements of Walt Disney are impressive and they have laid out the foundation for the whole entertainment industry. Even to this day, Walt Disney will forever be known as the king of animation.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Nafta ( North American Free Trade Agreement - 1449 Words

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) was formed in 1994 and created one of the world’s largest free trade zones which includes Mexico, United States and Canada. NAFTA is an example of a multilateral approach to free trade. The multilateral approach states that a country will bargain with its trading partners to remove trade restrictions while the other countries do the same. Another multilateral approach is GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which regulates international trade. GATT is comprised of representatives of all WTO member countries. The WTO (World Trade Organization) was established January 1, 1995 and is headquartered in Geneva Switzerland. As of November 2015 there were one hundred sixty-two countries that were members. The Uruguay Round was the most comprehensive international trade agreement and was finalized December 15, 1993. â€Å"Its Final Act prescribes, among other things, that tariffs on industrial products be reduced by an average of m ore than one-third, that trade in agricultural goods be progressively liberalized, and that a new body, the World Trade Organization, be established both to facilitate the implementation of multilateral trade agreements such as the Final Act and to serve as a forum for future negotiations.† (Fieleke, 1995) The Doha Round is the latest round of negotiations that began November 2001. Its aim was to lower trade barriers, revise trade rules and to promote trade in developing countries. 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The United States, Canada, and developing Mexico decided to work towards eliminating most tariffs and non-tariff barriers between the three in order to increase the flow of trade in goodsRead MoreThe North American Free Trade Agreement1711 Words   |  7 PagesThis paper will discuss four components of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Background, events, pros and cons. Upon the research, you will discover four online articles to provide more detail and examples. This research will indicate how it was developed and the reasoning on why it would benefit the nation. Also, it will provide events that occur after the agreement was signed by congress and the recession the countries experience d uring the early 2000s. There will be a chart located